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<<芙蓉女儿诔>>英文翻译(杨宪益版)

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发表于 2007-12-30 15:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
<<芙蓉女儿诔>>英文翻译(杨宪益版)

原文:


宝玉本是个不读书之人,再心中有了这篇歪意,怎得有好诗文作出来.他自己却任意纂著,并不为人知慕,所以大肆妄诞,竟杜撰成一篇长文,用晴雯素日所喜之冰鲛ゑ一幅楷字写成,名曰<<芙蓉女儿诔>>,前序后歌.又备了四样晴雯所喜之物,于是夜月下,命那小丫头捧至芙蓉花前.先行礼毕,将那诔文即挂于芙蓉枝上,乃泣涕念曰:


维太平不易之元,芙蓉竞芳之月,无可奈何之日,怡红院浊玉,谨以群花之蕊、冰鲛之彀、沁芳之泉、枫露之茗,四者虽微,聊以达诚申信,乃致祭于白帝宫中抚司秋艳芙蓉女儿之前曰:

  窃思女儿自临人世,迄今凡十有六载。其先之乡籍姓氏,湮沦而莫能考者久矣。而玉得于衾枕栉沐之间,栖息宴游之夕,亲昵狎亵,相与共处者,仅五年八月有奇。

  忆女儿曩生之昔,其为质则金玉不足喻其贵,其为体则冰雪不足喻其洁,其为神则星日不足喻其精,其为貌则花月不足喻其色。姊妹悉慕媖娴,妪媪咸仰惠德。

  孰料鸠鸩恶其高,鹰鸷翻遭罦罬;--葹妒其臭,苣兰竟被芟--!花原自怯,岂奈狂飚,柳本多愁,何禁骤雨。偶逢蛊虿之谗,遂抱膏肓之疾。故尔樱唇红褪,韵吐呻吟;杏脸香枯,色阵--颔。诼谣--诟,出自屏帏;荆棘蓬榛,蔓延户牖。既怀幽沉于不尽,复含罔屈于无穷。高标见嫉,闺帏恨比长沙;贞烈遭危,巾帼惨于雁塞。自蓄辛酸,谁怜天逝!仙灵既散,芳趾难寻。洲迷聚窟,何来却死之香?海失灵槎,不获回生之药。

  眉黛烟青,昨犹我画;指环玉冷,今倩谁温?鼎炉之剩药犹存,襟泪之余痕尚渍。镜分鸾影,愁开麝月之奁;梳化龙飞,哀折擅云之齿。委金钿于草莽,拾翠盒于尘埃。楼空--鹊,枉悬七夕之针;带断鸳鸯,谁续五丝之缕?

  况乃金天属节,白帝司时,孤衾有梦,空室无人。桐阶月暗,芳魂与倩影同消;蓉帐香残,娇喘共细腰俱绝。连天衰草,岂独蒹葭;匝地悲声,无非蟋蟀。露阶晚砌,穿帘不度寒砧;雨荔秋垣,隔院希闻怨笛。芳名未泯,檐前鹦鹉犹呼;艳质将亡,槛外海棠预萎。捉迷屏后,莲瓣无声;斗草庭前,兰芳枉待。抛残绣线,银笺彩袖谁裁?褶断冰丝、金斗御香未熨。

  昨承严命,即趋车而远涉芳园;今犯慈威,复柱杖而遣抛孤柩。及闻蕙棺被燹,顿违共穴之情,石椁成灾,愧逮同灰之诮。

  尔乃西风古寺,淹滞青磷,落日荒丘,零星白骨。楸榆飒飒,蓬艾萧萧。隔雾圹以啼猿,绕烟塍而泣鬼。岂道红绡帐里,公子情深;始信黄土垅中,女儿命薄!汝南斑斑泪血,洒向西风,梓泽默默余衷,诉凭冷月。

  呜呼!固鬼蜮之为灾,岂神灵之有妒。毁--奴之口,讨岂从宽;剖悍妇之心,忿犹未释!在卿之尘缘虽浅,而玉之鄙意尤深。因蓄惓惓之思,不禁谆谆之问。

  始知上帝垂旌,花宫待治,生侪兰蕙,死辖芙蓉。听小婢之言,似涉无稽;据浊玉之思,深为有据。何也?昔叶法善摄魂以撰碑,李长吉被诏而为记,事虽殊,其理则一也。故相物以配才,苟非其人;恶乃滥乎?始信上帝委托权衡,可谓至洽至协,庶不负其所秉赋也。因希其不昧之灵,或陟降于兹;不揣鄙俗之词,有污慧听。乃歌而招之曰:

   天何如是之苍苍兮,乘玉虬以游乎穹窿耶?

  地何如是之茫茫兮,驾瑶象以降乎泉壤耶?

  望伞盖之陆离兮,抑箕尾之光耶?

  列羽葆而为前导兮,卫危虚于旁耶?

  驱丰隆以为庇从兮,望舒月以临耶?

  听车轨而伊轨兮,御鸾鹥以征耶?

  闻馥郁而飘然兮,纫蘅杜以为佩耶?

  斓裙裾之烁烁兮,镂明月以为璫耶?

  藉葳蕤而成坛--兮,檠莲焰以烛兰膏耶?

  文瓠瓠以为觯斝兮,洒--醁以浮桂醑耶?

  瞻云气而凝睇兮,仿佛有所觇耶?

  俯波痕而属耳兮,恍惚有所闻耶?

  期汗漫而无际兮,捐弃予于尘埃耶?

  倩风廉之为余驱车兮,冀联辔而携归耶?

  余中心之为慨然兮,徒嗷嗷而何为耶?

  卿偃然而长寝兮,岂天运之变于斯耶?

  既窀穸且安称兮,反其真而又奚化耶?

  余从桎梏而悬附兮,灵格余以嗟来耶?

  止兮,卿其来耶!

  若夫鸿蒙而居,寂静以处,虽临于兹,余亦莫睹。搴烟萝而为步幛,列苍蒲而森行伍。警柳眼之贪眠,释莲心之味苦。素女约于桂岩,宓妃迎于兰渚。弄玉吹笙,寒簧击敔。征嵩岳之妃,启骊山之姥。龟呈洛浦之灵。兽作咸池之舞。潜赤水兮龙吟,集珠林兮凤翥。爰格爰诚,匪簠匪筥。发轫乎霞城,还旌乎玄圃。既显微而若逋,复氤氲而倏阻。离合兮烟云,空蒙兮雾雨。尘霾敛兮星高,溪山丽兮月午。何心意之怦怦,若寤寐之栩栩。余乃欷觑怅怏,泣涕仿徨。人语兮寂历,天籁兮筼筜。鸟惊散而飞,鱼唼喋以响 。志哀兮是祷,成礼兮期祥。呜呼哀哉!尚飨!

翻译

Pao-yu had never been a good student, and now as he entertained such perverse ideas how could he produce any good poems or essay? Yet he wrote purely for his own enjoyment, not for others to read or admire. So giving free rein to his absurd imagination, he made up a long lament, and he copied this out neatly on a white translucent silk kerchief which Ching-wen had fancied, entitling it Elegy for the Hibiscus Maid and giving it a preface and a concluding song. He also had four of the things which Ching-wen had liked best provided. When it was dark and the moon was up, he told the young maid to place these before the hibiscus. First he bowed, then hung the elegy on a spray of flowers and, shedding tears, recited:
        
In this year of lasting peace, this month when hibiscus and osmanthus bloom, and on this hapless day, loutish Pao-yu of Happy Red Court presents fresh flowers, icy mermaid’s silk, water from seeping Fragrance Fountain and maple-dew tea, mere trifles to convey his sincere feeling and to sacrifice to:

The Hibiscus Maid in charge of this autumn flower in the Palace of the White Emperor.

The dedication:

Pensively, Ireflect that sicteen years have passed since this girl came into the dusty world, and her former name and home district have long been lost beyond recall. Only for little more than five years and eight months did I have her together with me as a dear companion in my bed-chamber to help me with my toiler and to share my recreations. In life, neither gold nor jade could compare with her character; neither ice nor snow with her purity; neither sun nor stars with her fine spirits; neithet flowers nor moon with her beauty. All the maids admired her goodness, all the nurses praised her kindness.

Who could know that the eagle would be trapped in a net beacause pigoens and falcons hated its soaring spirits, that the orchid would be cut down beacause weeds envied its fragrance? How could such a delicate flower withstand a fierce gale, or the carestriken willow endure torrential rain? Slandered by poisonous pests, she fell mortally ill: her cherry lips lost their redness as she moaned, her apricot cheeks became wan and faded. Slanderous accusations came from behind screens and curtains; brambles and throns choked doors and windows. It was not that she asked for trouble, but refuting false charges she was fated to die. She was trampled down without cease, endlessly accused. Like Chia Yi, she was attacked by those jealous of her noble character; and, like Kun imperilled by her integrity. She hid her bitterness in her heart, and who is there to lament het life cut short?

Now the fair clouds have scattered; no trace of her can be found. No search can be made for the incense that revives the dead, as the way to the Fairy Isles is lost. No medicine that restore life that can be obtained, as the Magic Barge is gone. Only yesterday I was painting those bluish eyebrows; today, who will warm her cold finger with the jade rings? Medicine remains in the tripod on the stove; the tear stains on my gown are still wet. Sad it is to open the the mirror-case, for the fhoenixes on its back have parted company with the broken mirror. Her comb has broken, alas, and flown off like a vanishing dragon; her gold hair-pin has dropped in the grass; her emerald hair clasp is in the dust; the magpines are gone, the needle of the Double Seventeen Festival reats idle; the love belt is broken, and who is there to weave the multi-coloured silk thread?

In this autumn season ruled over by the White Emperor, I dream in my lonely bed in a deserted room. In the moonlight under the plane tree, her charming image and sweet spirits have vanished; fragrance clings to the lotus curtain, but her scented breath and easy talk are no more. Withered grass stretched to the horizon, and everywhere crichets keep up a mournful chirping. In the evening the mossy steps are wet with dew, but no sound of pounding clothes come through the portiere. As rain patters down on the winecovered wall, one hardly hears fluting from the other court. The cockatoo before the caves still remembers her sweet name; the begonia withering outside the balustrade foretold her death. No more game of hide-and-seek behind the screen, her dainty footsteps are silent;  No more matching-herbs contests in the court where orchids burgeon in vain. The embroidery thread cast aside, who is there to decide the coloured patterns on silk? Linen crumpled, who is there to iron and scent it? Yesterday on my father’s orders, I was borne far off in a carriage to another garden; today, offending my mother, I wept over the removal of her lonely bier. When I heard that her coffin was to be cremated, I blushed with shame at breaking my vow to die, be buried and reduced to ashes together with her!

By the old temple in the autumn wind, will-o’-the –wisps are lingering; on the desolate mount in the setting sun, a few scattered bones only remain; elm trees rustle; tangled artemisia signs; gibbons wail beyond the misty wilderness; ghost weep around the foggy graveyard pathways. The young lordling behind red gauze curtains is filled with longing for the ill-fated maid in her mound of yellow earth. Facing the west wind, for you I shed tears of blood, while the master of Tzu Tse pours out his grief to the cold moon in silence.

Alas! This calamity was caused by evil spirits, not because the gods were jealous. Slashing the slender’s mouth would be too good to her! Coutting out the shrew’s heart could not vent my anger! Though you had a short stay on earth, so deep my feeling to you that I took careful thought and made detailed inquiries. Then I learned that the Heavenly Emperor had graciously summoned you to the Palace of Flowers; for in life you were like an orchid, and in death you are in charge of the hibiscus. Though the young maid’s words seemed fantastic, in my humble opinion there are good grounds for them. Of old Yeh Fa-shan summoned a spirit to write an epitaph for him, and Li Ho was ordered by heaven to make a record-different happenings but the same in principle. For suitable tasks are selected for different talents, and the wrong choice of person would do the flowers injustice. This convinces me that the Heavenly Emperor makes most fitting use of his power, appointing those best suited to each post.

In the hope that her immortal spirits may descend here, I offer my poor composition for her compassionate ears. And here is the song to summon her spirit:

Grey, grey is the sky!
Are you riding a jade dragon on the void?
Vast, vast is the earth!
Are you descending in jade and ivory carriage?
So bright and sparkling your canopy—
Is it the radiance from the zodiac’s tail?
Are these coloured plumes leading the way
And on either side constellations?
Are you escorted by the God of Clouds?
Approaching with the Courier God of the Moon?
I hear the creaking of your carriage wheel—
Are you coming in a phoenix equippage?
I smell a subtle fragrance—
Are you wearing scented herbs?
Sparkling the light from your skirt—
Have you carved the bright moon for your pendant?
On an altar of luxuriant orchid leaves
I burn scented oil in lotus lamps,
And pour your osmanthus wine
In goblets of gourds,
Gazing intently through the cloudy air
I seem to glimpse some vision;
Bending over the depth to listen,
Methinks I catch a sound,
Can you, roaming through boundless space,
Bear abandoning me in the dust?
If I beg the God of Wind to drive my carriage,
May I hope to ride with you?
Wrathful is my heart,
But what use is it lamenting?
You are reating now in peace;
Is it destiny that has thus changed my life?
Tranquil you sleep in your secluded vault;
Can you leave it to change once more?
I remain enfettered here.
Ah, spirit, will you come at my call?
Are you approaching or tarring?
Come, I implore you!

        
Since you live in the silent unknown, even if you approach me my eyes cannot see you. With ivy as your screen, rush-swords as your retinue, you rouse the willow to open their drowsy eyes and dispel the bitterness in lotus seeds. Met by the Goddess of Music at Cassia Cliff, you are welcomed by the Goddess of the River Lo at Orchid Isle; Nung Yu plays the flute and Han Yu plays the flute and Han Huang sounds the clapper to summon the queen of Nount Sung and the Dowager of Mount Li. The Divine Tortoise manisfests itself in the River Lo, wild beasts dance to the melody Hsiencbib, dragons sing below the Red Stream, and phoenixes alight at the Pearl Forest.

I am sacrificing with sincerity, caring little what sacrificial vessels I am using.

Setting out in your chariot from the City of Bright Morning Clouds, you return with your banners to the Hanging Garden. One moment your form seems faintly visible, the next it is suddenly blotted out by mist. The clouds and mist converge, then part again; fog and rain obscure the sky; then the mist withdraw, high above gleam stars, and the moon in mid sky brightens the hills and streams.

My heart is beating fast, like one just waking from a dream. I weep with longing and shed tears, not knowing where to go. All human voices are hushed; the only sounds are the ustling of bamboo, birds taking wing in fright, fish blowing bubbles……

In my frief I invoke you and, these rites at an end, look for some sign.

Ah, may your spirits come to the sacrifice!

[ 本帖最后由 怀抱花朵的孩子 于 2007-12-30 03:51 PM 编辑 ]

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 楼主| 发表于 2007-12-30 15:34 | 显示全部楼层

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<<芙蓉女儿诔>>英文翻译(杨宪益版)

宝玉本是个不读书之人,再心中有了这篇歪意,怎得有好诗文作出来.他自己却任意纂著,并不为人知慕,所以大肆妄诞,竟杜撰成一篇长文,用晴雯素日所喜之冰鲛ゑ一幅楷字写成,名曰<<芙蓉女儿诔>>,前序后歌.又备了四样晴雯所喜之物,于是夜月下,命那小丫头捧至芙蓉花前.先行礼毕,将那诔文即挂于芙蓉枝上,乃泣涕念曰:


Pao-yu had never been a good student, and now as he entertained such perverse ideas how could he produce any good poems or essay? Yet he wrote purely for his own enjoyment, not for others to read or admire. So giving free rein to his absurd imagination, he made up a long lament, and he copied this out neatly on a white translucent silk kerchief which Ching-wen had fancied, entitling it Elegy for the Hibiscus Maid and giving it a preface and a concluding song. He also had four of the things which Ching-wen had liked best provided. When it was dark and the moon was up, he told the young maid to place these before the hibiscus. First he bowed, then hung the elegy on a spray of flowers and, shedding tears, recited:  

       维太平不易之元,芙蓉竞芳之月,无可奈何之日,怡红院浊玉,谨以群花之蕊、冰鲛之彀、沁芳之泉、枫露之茗,四者虽微,聊以达诚申信,乃致祭于白帝宫中抚司秋艳芙蓉女儿之前曰:

In this year of lasting peace, this month when hibiscus and osmanthus bloom, and on this hapless day, loutish Pao-yu of Happy Red Court presents fresh flowers, icy mermaid’s silk, water from seeping Fragrance Fountain and maple-dew tea, mere trifles to convey his sincere feeling and to sacrifice to:
The Hibiscus Maid in charge of this autumn flower in the Palace of the White Emperor.
The dedication:

窃思女儿自临人世,迄今凡十有六载。其先之乡籍姓氏,湮沦而莫能考者久矣。而玉得于衾枕栉沐之间,栖息宴游之夕,亲昵狎亵,相与共处者,仅五年八月有奇。
忆女儿曩生之昔,其为质则金玉不足喻其贵,其为体则冰雪不足喻其洁,其为神则星日不足喻其精,其为貌则花月不足喻其色。姊妹悉慕媖娴,妪媪咸仰惠德。

Pensively, Ireflect that sicteen years have passed since this girl came into the dusty world, and her former name and home district have long been lost beyond recall. Only for little more than five years and eight months did I have her together with me as a dear companion in my bed-chamber to help me with my toiler and to share my recreations. In life, neither gold nor jade could compare with her character; neither ice nor snow with her purity; neither sun nor stars with her fine spirits; neithet flowers nor moon with her beauty. All the maids admired her goodness, all the nurses praised her kindness.

孰料鸠鸩恶其高,鹰鸷翻遭罦罬;--葹妒其臭,苣兰竟被芟--!花原自怯,岂奈狂飚,柳本多愁,何禁骤雨。偶逢蛊虿之谗,遂抱膏肓之疾。故尔樱唇红褪,韵吐呻吟;杏脸香枯,色阵--颔。诼谣--诟,出自屏帏;荆棘蓬榛,蔓延户牖。既怀幽沉于不尽,复含罔屈于无穷。高标见嫉,闺帏恨比长沙;贞烈遭危,巾帼惨于雁塞。自蓄辛酸,谁怜天逝!仙灵既散,芳趾难寻。洲迷聚窟,何来却死之香?海失灵槎,不获回生之药。

  眉黛烟青,昨犹我画;指环玉冷,今倩谁温?鼎炉之剩药犹存,襟泪之余痕尚渍。镜分鸾影,愁开麝月之奁;梳化龙飞,哀折擅云之齿。委金钿于草莽,拾翠盒于尘埃。楼空--鹊,枉悬七夕之针;带断鸳鸯,谁续五丝之缕?

Who could know that the eagle would be trapped in a net beacause pigoens and falcons hated its soaring spirits, that the orchid would be cut down beacause weeds envied its fragrance? How could such a delicate flower withstand a fierce gale, or the carestriken willow endure torrential rain? Slandered by poisonous pests, she fell mortally ill: her cherry lips lost their redness as she moaned, her apricot cheeks became wan and faded. Slanderous accusations came from behind screens and curtains; brambles and throns choked doors and windows. It was not that she asked for trouble, but refuting false charges she was fated to die. She was trampled down without cease, endlessly accused. Like Chia Yi, she was attacked by those jealous of her noble character; and, like Kun imperilled by her integrity. She hid her bitterness in her heart, and who is there to lament het life cut short?
Now the fair clouds have scattered; no trace of her can be found. No search can be made for the incense that revives the dead, as the way to the Fairy Isles is lost. No medicine that restore life that can be obtained, as the Magic Barge is gone. Only yesterday I was painting those bluish eyebrows; today, who will warm her cold finger with the jade rings? Medicine remains in the tripod on the stove; the tear stains on my gown are still wet. Sad it is to open the the mirror-case, for the fhoenixes on its back have parted company with the broken mirror. Her comb has broken, alas, and flown off like a vanishing dragon; her gold hair-pin has dropped in the grass; her emerald hair clasp is in the dust; the magpines are gone, the needle of the Double Seventeen Festival reats idle; the love belt is broken, and who is there to weave the multi-coloured silk thread?

况乃金天属节,白帝司时,孤衾有梦,空室无人。桐阶月暗,芳魂与倩影同消;蓉帐香残,娇喘共细腰俱绝。连天衰草,岂独蒹葭;匝地悲声,无非蟋蟀。露阶晚砌,穿帘不度寒砧;雨荔秋垣,隔院希闻怨笛。芳名未泯,檐前鹦鹉犹呼;艳质将亡,槛外海棠预萎。捉迷屏后,莲瓣无声;斗草庭前,兰芳枉待。抛残绣线,银笺彩袖谁裁?褶断冰丝、金斗御香未熨。

  昨承严命,即趋车而远涉芳园;今犯慈威,复柱杖而遣抛孤柩。及闻蕙棺被燹,顿违共穴之情,石椁成灾,愧逮同灰之诮。

In this autumn season ruled over by the White Emperor, I dream in my lonely bed in a deserted room. In the moonlight under the plane tree, her charming image and sweet spirits have vanished; fragrance clings to the lotus curtain, but her scented breath and easy talk are no more. Withered grass stretched to the horizon, and everywhere crichets keep up a mournful chirping. In the evening the mossy steps are wet with dew, but no sound of pounding clothes come through the portiere. As rain patters down on the winecovered wall, one hardly hears fluting from the other court. The cockatoo before the caves still remembers her sweet name; the begonia withering outside the balustrade foretold her death. No more game of hide-and-seek behind the screen, her dainty footsteps are silent;  No more matching-herbs contests in the court where orchids burgeon in vain. The embroidery thread cast aside, who is there to decide the coloured patterns on silk? Linen crumpled, who is there to iron and scent it? Yesterday on my father’s orders, I was borne far off in a carriage to another garden; today, offending my mother, I wept over the removal of her lonely bier. When I heard that her coffin was to be cremated, I blushed with shame at breaking my vow to die, be buried and reduced to ashes together with her!

尔乃西风古寺,淹滞青磷,落日荒丘,零星白骨。楸榆飒飒,蓬艾萧萧。隔雾圹以啼猿,绕烟塍而泣鬼。岂道红绡帐里,公子情深;始信黄土垅中,女儿命薄!汝南斑斑泪血,洒向西风,梓泽默默余衷,诉凭冷月。

By the old temple in the autumn wind, will-o’-the –wisps are lingering; on the desolate mount in the setting sun, a few scattered bones only remain; elm trees rustle; tangled artemisia signs; gibbons wail beyond the misty wilderness; ghost weep around the foggy graveyard pathways. The young lordling behind red gauze curtains is filled with longing for the ill-fated maid in her mound of yellow earth. Facing the west wind, for you I shed tears of blood, while the master of Tzu Tse pours out his grief to the cold moon in silence.

 呜呼!固鬼蜮之为灾,岂神灵之有妒。毁--奴之口,讨岂从宽;剖悍妇之心,忿犹未释!在卿之尘缘虽浅,而玉之鄙意尤深。因蓄惓惓之思,不禁谆谆之问。

  始知上帝垂旌,花宫待治,生侪兰蕙,死辖芙蓉。听小婢之言,似涉无稽;据浊玉之思,深为有据。何也?昔叶法善摄魂以撰碑,李长吉被诏而为记,事虽殊,其理则一也。故相物以配才,苟非其人;恶乃滥乎?始信上帝委托权衡,可谓至洽至协,庶不负其所秉赋也。因希其不昧之灵,或陟降于兹;不揣鄙俗之词,有污慧听。乃歌而招之曰:

Alas! This calamity was caused by evil spirits, not because the gods were jealous. Slashing the slender’s mouth would be too good to her! Coutting out the shrew’s heart could not vent my anger! Though you had a short stay on earth, so deep my feeling to you that I took careful thought and made detailed inquiries. Then I learned that the Heavenly Emperor had graciously summoned you to the Palace of Flowers; for in life you were like an orchid, and in death you are in charge of the hibiscus. Though the young maid’s words seemed fantastic, in my humble opinion there are good grounds for them. Of old Yeh Fa-shan summoned a spirit to write an epitaph for him, and Li Ho was ordered by heaven to make a record-different happenings but the same in principle. For suitable tasks are selected for different talents, and the wrong choice of person would do the flowers injustice. This convinces me that the Heavenly Emperor makes most fitting use of his power, appointing those best suited to each post.
In the hope that her immortal spirits may descend here, I offer my poor composition for her compassionate ears. And here is the song to summon her spirit:

   天何如是之苍苍兮,乘玉虬以游乎穹窿耶?

  地何如是之茫茫兮,驾瑶象以降乎泉壤耶?

  望伞盖之陆离兮,抑箕尾之光耶?

  列羽葆而为前导兮,卫危虚于旁耶?

  驱丰隆以为庇从兮,望舒月以临耶?

  听车轨而伊轨兮,御鸾鹥以征耶?

  闻馥郁而飘然兮,纫蘅杜以为佩耶?

  斓裙裾之烁烁兮,镂明月以为璫耶?

  藉葳蕤而成坛--兮,檠莲焰以烛兰膏耶?

  文瓠瓠以为觯斝兮,洒--醁以浮桂醑耶?

  瞻云气而凝睇兮,仿佛有所觇耶?

  俯波痕而属耳兮,恍惚有所闻耶?

  期汗漫而无际兮,捐弃予于尘埃耶?

  倩风廉之为余驱车兮,冀联辔而携归耶?

  余中心之为慨然兮,徒嗷嗷而何为耶?

  卿偃然而长寝兮,岂天运之变于斯耶?

  既窀穸且安称兮,反其真而又奚化耶?

  余从桎梏而悬附兮,灵格余以嗟来耶?

  止兮,卿其来耶!

Grey, grey is the sky!
Are you riding a jade dragon on the void?
Vast, vast is the earth!
Are you descending in jade and ivory carriage?
So bright and sparkling your canopy—
Is it the radiance from the zodiac’s tail?
Are these coloured plumes leading the way
And on either side constellations?
Are you escorted by the God of Clouds?
Approaching with the Courier God of the Moon?
I hear the creaking of your carriage wheel—
Are you coming in a phoenix equippage?
I smell a subtle fragrance—
Are you wearing scented herbs?
Sparkling the light from your skirt—
Have you carved the bright moon for your pendant?
On an altar of luxuriant orchid leaves
I burn scented oil in lotus lamps,
And pour your osmanthus wine
In goblets of gourds,
Gazing intently through the cloudy air
I seem to glimpse some vision;
Bending over the depth to listen,
Methinks I catch a sound,
Can you, roaming through boundless space,
Bear abandoning me in the dust?
If I beg the God of Wind to drive my carriage,
May I hope to ride with you?
Wrathful is my heart,
But what use is it lamenting?
You are reating now in peace;
Is it destiny that has thus changed my life?
Tranquil you sleep in your secluded vault;
Can you leave it to change once more?
I remain enfettered here.
Ah, spirit, will you come at my call?
Are you approaching or tarring?
Come, I implore you!



        
若夫鸿蒙而居,寂静以处,虽临于兹,余亦莫睹。搴烟萝而为步幛,列苍蒲而森行伍。警柳眼之贪眠,释莲心之味苦。素女约于桂岩,宓妃迎于兰渚。弄玉吹笙,寒簧击敔。征嵩岳之妃,启骊山之姥。龟呈洛浦之灵。兽作咸池之舞。潜赤水兮龙吟,集珠林兮凤翥。爰格爰诚,匪簠匪筥。发轫乎霞城,还旌乎玄圃。既显微而若逋,复氤氲而倏阻。离合兮烟云,空蒙兮雾雨。尘霾敛兮星高,溪山丽兮月午。何心意之怦怦,若寤寐之栩栩。余乃欷觑怅怏,泣涕仿徨。人语兮寂历,天籁兮筼筜。鸟惊散而飞,鱼唼喋以响 。志哀兮是祷,成礼兮期祥。呜呼哀哉!尚飨!

Since you live in the silent unknown, even if you approach me my eyes cannot see you. With ivy as your screen, rush-swords as your retinue, you rouse the willow to open their drowsy eyes and dispel the bitterness in lotus seeds. Met by the Goddess of Music at Cassia Cliff, you are welcomed by the Goddess of the River Lo at Orchid Isle; Nung Yu plays the flute and Han Yu plays the flute and Han Huang sounds the clapper to summon the queen of Nount Sung and the Dowager of Mount Li. The Divine Tortoise manisfests itself in the River Lo, wild beasts dance to the melody Hsiencbib, dragons sing below the Red Stream, and phoenixes alight at the Pearl Forest.
I am sacrificing with sincerity, caring little what sacrificial vessels I am using.
Setting out in your chariot from the City of Bright Morning Clouds, you return with your banners to the Hanging Garden. One moment your form seems faintly visible, the next it is suddenly blotted out by mist. The clouds and mist converge, then part again; fog and rain obscure the sky; then the mist withdraw, high above gleam stars, and the moon in mid sky brightens the hills and streams.
My heart is beating fast, like one just waking from a dream. I weep with longing and shed tears, not knowing where to go. All human voices are hushed; the only sounds are the ustling of bamboo, birds taking wing in fright, fish blowing bubbles……
In my frief I invoke you and, these rites at an end, look for some sign.
Ah, may your spirits come to the sacrifice!

[ 本帖最后由 怀抱花朵的孩子 于 2007-12-30 03:51 PM 编辑 ]
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狂生醉侠

发表于 2007-12-30 16:01 | 显示全部楼层
其韵味相差不知凡几。
北冥有鱼,其名为鲲。鲲之大,不知其几千里也。化而为鸟,其名 为鹏。鹏之背,不知其几千里也。怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云。是鸟也 ,海运则将徙于南冥。南冥者,天池也。

生鸟亦四种,化生之鸟力制其余。湿生之龙不具胎鸟屈伏之势,例此以明。且沧海无涯,群龙游泳。将喙也鼓其羽翅扇波涛,水为涸流,龙无头寄恣其食不遑度宁。所以然者,一以鸟形环偻。
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荣誉居民

陨星最后的金色

Rank: 8Rank: 8Rank: 8Rank: 8

 楼主| 发表于 2007-12-31 17:53 | 显示全部楼层

读书笔记

29号晚上领导请我们吃饭,快递公司忽然打来电话说我买的英文版《红楼梦》到了,我告诉了他们地址,半个小时后邮递员把这套三本装的精装本送到了我们吃饭的地方。我看着这三大本书饭都没心思吃了,一心盼着饭局快点结束好回宿舍欣赏。

终于能静下心来看书的第一反应就是看第78章《芙蓉女儿诔》的翻译,《芙蓉女儿诔》是《红楼梦》里我最喜欢的一段文字,也是里面最俱文采的一段,当然也是最难翻译的一段。因为里面有楚辞之风,而且遣词用典都竭尽华丽曲折之能事,我们读原文也要参考很多注释才能勉强看懂,我想看看杨宪益怎样用他的生花妙笔跨越文化大山把如此复杂如此优美的文字介绍给全世界的。当然,翻译是有缺憾的艺术,不可能做到百分之百,只看接近的程度。我对缺憾的程度当然有心理准备,但是读完之后仍然觉得有些地方值得讨论。因为我自己刚学翻译,一个纯粹的小学生,所以希望把这些问题整理出来向各位方家请教,特意把杨宪益翻译的原文敲成电子文档贴出来。

翻译这篇《芙蓉女儿诔》有两个大的问题需要我们讨论,一:对原文的理解,由于原文用典很多,而且不是每个地方的用典都很明确,有些地方红学家们都在争论,再加上中文从来都是“意合”,特别追求意境,有些时候为了表达意境选择文字不受限制,这就给翻译造成了很大的难度,是“直译”传达作者的文字,还是“意译”传达意境很值得研究和探讨。二:文体风格的把握:《芙蓉女儿诔》毕竟是为了悼念晴雯而写的“诔”,是为了寄托宝玉的哀思,不承载太多的实际内容,对形式风格语言却很讲究。翻译的时候怎样在传达出作者本意的同时尽可能的保留或者说显现原文的些许风格,是另一个值得考虑的问题。虽然这种努力近乎绝望。还有一些相对来说小点的问题在列举的时候在一一说明。

下面我将对具体问题一一列举,先给出原文,再给出翻译,再提出问题。

1他自己却任意纂著,并不为人知慕
  Yet he wrote purely for his own enjoyment, not for others to read or admire.

这里的enjoyment好象有点不妥,《芙蓉女儿诔》是为了悼念晴雯,晴雯是宝玉最喜欢的丫头之一,她的死让宝玉很伤心,肯定谈不上enjoyment。我想这里的“任意纂著”和“大肆妄诞”重要为了表现宝玉无拘无束,任性而为的性格,有点“我手写我心”的感觉,可不可以翻译成:“Yet he just want to write what he likes”?

2用晴雯素日所喜之冰鲛縠一幅楷字写成
and he copied this out neatly on a white translucent silk kerchief which Ching-wen had fancied

冰鲛之谷----传说:鲛人居南海中,如鱼,滴泪成珠,善机织所织之绡,明洁如冰,暑天令人凉快,以此命名。
这里的“冰鲛縠”翻译成“white translucent silk kerchief”而下一段“冰鲛之谷”翻译成“icy mermaid’s silk”,前面是为了意义明确,后面是为了配合典礼的气氛,但是可不可以前面也用“icy mermaid’s silk”呢?毕竟是“晴雯素日所喜”之物啊。

3 四者虽微,聊以达诚申信,乃致祭于白帝宫中抚司秋艳芙蓉女儿之前曰:
  mere trifles to convey his sincere feeling and to sacrifice to:
The Hibiscus Maid in charge of this autumn flower in the Palace of the White Emperor.
The dedication:

这里有两个值得探讨的地方:1,“sacrifice”一词是全文的关键,但是英文里面的“sacrifice”好象总给人一种很血腥的感觉,有没有词可以替换呢?2。“白帝宫中抚司秋艳芙蓉女儿”翻译成“The Hibiscus Maid in charge of this autumn flower in the Palace of the White Emperor.”,这里面的“this autumn flower”是什么意思呢?是不是应该是“autumn flowers”

4 窃思女儿自临人世,迄今凡十有六载。其先之乡籍姓氏,湮沦而莫能考者久矣。
  Pensively, I reflect that sixteen years have passed since this girl came into the dusty world , and her former name and home district have long been lost beyond recall.
  
  这个“Pensively”用的特别好,但是“dusty world”就有点与原文不符,原文是“人世”,不是“尘世”,用“dusty world”是为了是原文的隐含意义明显化吗?我真想写封信去问问杨宪益老先生,查了一下居然发现他都快98岁了,而且妻子去世后再没做翻译了。还是不要去打搅他老人家了。
  “湮沦而莫能考者久矣”翻译成“have long been lost beyond recall.”,“beyond recall.”在这里恐怕有些词不达意,朗文上说““beyond recall.”是“impossible to bring back or remember”的意思,而原文是强调“考证”的意思。但是我也想不出更好的词来代替。

5 而玉得于衾枕栉沐之间,栖息宴游之夕,亲昵狎亵,相与共处者,仅五年八月有奇。
  Only for little more than five years and eight months did I have her together with me as a dear companion in my bed-chamber to help me with my toiler and to share my recreations

这句跟下句都翻译的好!赞一个!

6 偶逢蛊虿之谗,遂抱膏肓之疾。
  Slandered by poisonous pests, she fell mortally ill。

  这样翻译好象是害虫在污蔑人似的,如果翻译成“Slandered by person who with a poisonous pests’ heart, she fell mortally ill,又嫌太散文化,失去了原文的对称感,这就是我上面说的形式与意义的矛盾。原文取比喻意义,读者都能懂,但是翻译的时候也这样读者能不能很好的理解呢?

7 荆棘蓬榛,蔓延户牖。
  brambles and thorns choked doors and windows
  
  “choked”一词用得精当,学习。

8 岂招尤则替,实攘诟而终。既怀幽沉于不尽,复含罔屈于无穷。
  It was not that she asked for trouble, but refuting false charges she was fated to die. She was trampled down without cease, endlessly accused.
  “幽沉”-----指潜藏在内心的怨恨或不平。《红楼梦》第七八回:“既怀幽沉於不尽,復含罔屈於无穷。” 清恽敬 《答赵青州书》:“ 敬 尝观之古人……或毁败於谗讥,或展转於疾病,使歷睽变之人情,发幽沉之己志。”  (〈〈汉典〉〉)
蔡义江把这句翻译成“哪里是自招罪愆而丧生,实在乃蒙受垢辱而致死。你是既怀着不尽的忧忿,又含着无穷的冤屈呵!”我觉得基本上是正确的。
我觉得这句问题很大,“refuting false”是什么意思?好象没有把“攘诟”的意思表现出来。
而且我怀疑杨宪益把“幽沉”的意思搞错了,所以才用“trampled down”。“ 既怀幽沉于不尽,复含罔屈于无穷。”这两个短句都主要在写晴雯的心理状态,而不是在强调外界对她的伤害。

9 自蓄辛酸,谁怜天逝!仙灵既散,芳趾难寻。
She hid her bitterness in her heart, and who is there to lament her life cut short?Now the fair clouds have scattered; no trace of her can be found.
这里“天逝”是什么意思?是指英年早逝吗?“仙灵”是什么意思?这里翻译成“fair clouds”,但是我好象觉得是指晴雯的英灵啊?

10 镜分鸾影,愁开麝月之奁;梳化龙飞,哀折擅云之齿。   
   Sad it is to open the the mirror-case, for the phoenixes on its back have parted company with the broken mirror. Her comb has broken, alas, and flown off like a vanishing dragon;
如此优美的意境能翻译到这个程度已经很不容易了。开始觉得应该加注,但是这个注很不好写,而且可能越解越糊涂,考虑到是写诗,也不用那么费力不讨好。

11 芳名未泯,檐前鹦鹉犹呼;
   The cockatoo before the eaves still remembers her sweet name;
   是不是翻成“The cockatoo before the eaves is still calling her sweet name;”更好呢?

12 捉迷屏后,莲瓣无声;
   No more game of hide-and-seek behind the screen, her dainty footsteps are silent;  
   这样翻译好象在说她的脚步很轻,几乎听不到的,但是原文实际意思应该是“再也听不到你的脚步声了”的意思。

13 抛残绣线,银笺彩袖谁裁?
   The embroidery thread cast aside, who is there to decide the coloured patterns on silk?
   蔡义江把这句翻译成:“刺绣的线已经丢弃,还有谁来裁纸样,定颜色?”
   其实这里的“裁”可以有两种解释,一个是裁剪的意思,一个是裁夺的意思。蔡义江把两个意思都翻出来了,杨宪益只取“裁夺”一义。

14 昨承严命,即趋车而远涉芳园;今犯慈威,复柱杖而遣抛孤柩。及闻蕙棺被燹,顿违共穴之情,石椁成灾,愧逮同灰之诮。
   Yesterday on my father’s orders, I was borne far off in a carriage to another garden; today, offending my mother, I wept over the removal of her lonely bier. When I heard that her coffin was to be cremated, I blushed with shame at breaking my vow to die, be buried and reduced to ashes together with her!
   “复柱杖而遣抛孤柩”只是陈述事实,应该没有为之哭之意在里面。
   后面的一个复句把“蕙棺被燹”和“石椁成灾”翻译成一个“to be cremated”,失去了原句的对仗排比。但是这两个句子意思一样,翻译成排比恐怕显得很罗嗦。

15 隔雾圹以啼猿,绕烟塍而泣鬼
   gibbons wail beyond the misty wilderness; ghost weep around the foggy graveyard pathways.  
   这句翻译得很漂亮,但是把“烟塍”翻译成“foggy graveyard pathways”好象不大好,“塍”是“田埂”
的意思,是为了迎合西方人的思维习惯才译成这样的吗?

16 岂道红绡帐里,公子情深;始信黄土垅中,女儿命薄!
   The young lordling behind red gauze curtains is filled with longing for the ill-fated maid in her mound of yellow earth.
   把“公子”译成“lordling”恐怕是无奈之选,“lordling”好象是“小贵族”的意思,但是宝玉确实货真价实的“大贵族”,可不可以译成“childe”呢?
   另外,这句里的“岂道”,“始信”都没翻出来。

17 驱丰隆以为庇从兮,望舒月以临耶?
   Are you escorted by the God of Clouds?Approaching with the Courier God of the Moon?
   丰隆、望舒----神话中的云神和驾月车的神。后文的“云廉”即“飞廉”,风神。《离骚》:“吾令丰隆乘云兮,求宓妃之所在。”又“前望舒使先驱兮,后飞廉使奔属。”“望舒”之“望”,在诔文中兼作动词用。
   蔡义江译:“让云神随行作为侍从啊!你望着那赶月车的神来送你走吗?”
   上面的注释里面说这里的“望”做兼词,也就是是既表示“驾月车的神”,又有“凝望”之意义。所以蔡义江翻译得很准确。杨宪益又是只取一义。

18 卿偃然而长寝兮,岂天运之变于斯耶?
   You are resting now in peace;Is it destiny that has thus changed my life?

应该这里强调的不是“my life”。

19        搴烟萝而为步幛,列苍蒲而森行伍。警柳眼之贪眠,释莲心之味苦。
With ivy as your screen, rush-swords as your retinue, you rouse the willow to open their drowsy eyes and dispel the bitterness in lotus seeds.
蔡义江译:“我取女萝作为帘幕屏障,让菖蒲象仪仗一样排列两旁。还要警告柳眼不要贪睡,教那莲心不再味苦难当。”
这里的主语究竟是谁?我觉得主语应该是“你”。但是说晴雯“警告”,还不如说她的风采使柳眼“警醒”,使“莲心不再味苦。”当然这只是感觉,谁也不能说谁完全是对的。有时候没有主语也是件好事,可以包含很多意思,但是也容易产生歧义。

20        爰格爰诚,匪簠匪筥
I am sacrificing with sincerity, caring little what sacrificial vessels I am using.
蔡义江译:“恭敬虔诚就能感动神灵,不必用祭器把门面装潢”

21        何心意之怦怦,若寤寐之栩栩。
My heart is beating fast, like one just waking from a dream.
“栩栩”?

22        天籁兮筼筜。
the only sounds are the rustling of bamboo,
为什么不是the only sounds are the music of heaven? 天籁就是竹林萧萧?
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